Monuments and memorials in Niasvizh
Klaŭdzia Šyšyhina-Patotskaja memorial plaque
At the house number 9 in the Karl Liebknecht street, a memorial plaque in honor of the famous scholar of Niasvizh , local history enthusiast, writer Klaŭdzia Shishigina-Pototskayai, who lived in this house from 1980 to 2005.
Klaŭdzia Šyšyhina was born in 1937 in Rahačoŭ district of Homiel region. During the war she lost her parents and was brought up in an orphanage in the village of Asmolava near Niasvizh , graduated from the Teacher Training College and Minsk Pedagogical Institute. Since 1965, Klaŭdzia taught English and music in the first Niasvizh normal school, then secondary school number 2 and number 3, she organized a school museum of creativity and consistently collected all the information about the history of Niasvizh and the surrounding area. Since the late 80s, on the basis of the collected myths and legends, as well as archival material Klaŭdzia Jakaŭlena. began publishing beautifully written books on the history of the town: "The Muses of Niasvizh", "The Legends of Niasvizh ", "Black Lady of the Niasvizh Castle" , etc. These books played an important role in promoting the image of Niasvizh as the town of rich history and high culture, and known only to the old-timers legends became the public domain.
Pavel Kosač memorial plaque
The plaque on the building in the Saveckaja street, 14, is put in the honor of the teacher, organizer of the popular amateur musical activity Pavel Mikalajevič Kosač. Pavel Kosač came to Niasvizh area in 1945, having had a job in the famous Chapel of Dzmitry Agrenieŭ-Slavinski, diplomas of Mahilioŭ Pedagogical Institute and the Belarusian State Conservatory. Pavel joined Niasvizh Pedagogical College as a professor of language, literature and singing. First, he organized a choir of students, and in 1952 he became a head of country choir of club of the village Liavonavičy. Under his guidance the choir has achieved a great success and had awards at all levels up to the All-Union. Pavel Kosač is known as the author of the lyrics and music of many songs, as well as a number of adaptor folk songs that have become popular.
UNESCO memorial sign
The memorial sign was mounted in honor of the inclusion of architectural, residential and cultural complex of the Radziwiłłs at Niasvizh to the World Heritage List of UNESCO. Inclusion to the prestigious list was conducted on 15 July 2005 in the South African town of Durban, which hosted the 29th session of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The complex includes the Radziwiłłs' Palace, the Corpus Christi Church and the surrounding buildings.
In 1972, UNESCO adopted the World Heritage Convention. Currently, the Convention was ratified by more than 180 member countries, including the Republic of Belarus. The main purpose of the World Heritage list is to make famous and to protect objects that are unique in their kind. States, in territory of which objects of World Heritage are situated, are committed to preserve them.
The list of World Heritage Sites contains four names from the Republic of Belarus. Three objects are included to the list on the basis of cultural criteria. They are, apart from Radziwiłłs' complex in Niasvizh, Mir Castle and the Belarusian section of the Struve Geodetic Arc. One object - the Bielaviezha Forest – was included on the basis of natural criteria, besides it is recognized as a natural phenomenon of exceptional beauty and esthetic importance. Additionally, 11 objects in the territory of Belarus are in the World Heritage Tentative List.
Monument to soldiers of the 193rd Division and the partisans
Niasvizh was captured by the attacking German troops at the end of June 1941 almost without a fight, as the Red Army was retreating rapidly. Only a group of several dozen soldiers in the western part of the town resisted the Germans. However, the town and the surrounding area were captured by many of the retreating soldiers of the Red Army. In general in Niasvizh were shot about three thousand prisoners of war.
During some time the headquarters of the 2nd Tank Group of a general Heinz Guderian were situated in the town. The German general himself wrote in his memoirs about visiting the Radziwiłłs' Palace. After the establishment of the occupation administration a ghetto was created, but by the summer of 1942, all Jews of Niasvizh were either shot or run into the woods. The only gypsy camp was also destroyed. For a variety of charges the Belarusians and the Poles were shot or thrown into a concentration camp. Over two thousand people were deported from the Niasvizh area for forced labor in Germany. Some of them did not return.
On July 2nd, 1944 the Soviet troops entered Niasvizh . They were the soldiers of the 193rd infantry division of the 65th Army under the command of Andrei Fralienkoŭ. The Red Army soldiers assisted the partisans of the 27th Čapajeŭ Brigade. The Germans persistently defended the town, and during the assault, many Soviet soldiers were killed. The next day German tanks apperead in the town, retreating from the east. Another fight occurred, but soon the tanks were thrown back. For his heroism a lieutenant Mikalaj Leščanka was given the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.
A monument of Symon Budny
Symon Budny is an educator, humanist and a prominent figure of the Renaissance in Belarus, having worked in Niasvizh for a long time. In the 1560s under the patronage of Mikołaj Radziwiłł in Niasvizh was opened and actively functioned a protestant typography. Under the guidance of Budny there was published the first book in the territory of contemporary Belarus in the Old Belarusian language – "Catechesis, or ancient Christian Science for the common people".
The same year was published a tractate "On the justification of a sinner before God". After the expulsion of the Protestants from Niasvizh, Symon Budny worked in other cities, engaged in religious and polemical work and translations of sacred texts. In 1570, still in Niasvizh Budny published a translation of the New Testament and Apocryphal Gospels in Polish, and in 1572, after moving of typography - translation of the whole Bible.
Symon Budny acted from a radical position, he rejected the dogma of the trinity of God, started denying the divine nature of Christ and the need of worship to him, sharply denouncing the vices of the Catholic and Orthodox churches, and criticized the Holy Scriptures. As a result Budny was excommunicated from the church, and before his death in 1593 in Vishnieva (modern Valozhyn district) he refused from the sacrament and renounced from God.
In 1972, on the building of Priest house, where at the moment was located regional printing house, a memorial plaque in honor of Budny was opened. In 1982, in front of the building his monument was mounted, created by sculptor Sviatlana Harbunova and architect Jury Kazakoŭ.
Ghetto uprising memorial
The Jewish community in Niasvizh existed at least since the end of the XVI century. In 1589, Mikołaj Krzysztof "the Orphan" Radziwiłł issued a privilege that regulated the rights and obligations of the Jews of Niasvizh. Soon, Jewish merchants and craftsmen started playing a vital role in the economic life of the town. Besides, with the Niasvizh community connected the names of the famous philosopher Salomon Maimon, a writer and play-writer Nahum Meyer Shaikevich, a rabbi Joseph Soloveitchik and many other public figures.
In the middle of the XVIII century more than a thousand Jews lived in Niasvizh , and in the beginning of the World War II, they constituted two-thirds of the town population – 3.700 individuals.
In June 1941, Niasvizh was occupied by the German troops. The Niasvizh ghetto was created. In October 1941, were selected more than 700 jewish craftsmen, who were found to be useful for the new government, and the others were killed: 1500 people in the park near the castle, 1200 - on the Snou road outside the town. Under the guidance of a teacher Shalom Cholawski between those who survived in the ghetto underground resitance was organized, which started to collect weapons and explosives. On July 21st, 1942, when the Lithuanian police squad arrived for the final solution of the Jewish question, the prisoners of the ghetto tried to resist. This rebellion was quickly suppressed, most of the rebels were killed, not numerous survivors broke into the woods and joined the partisans. Cholawski, one of the leaders of the uprising, a Jewish partisan unit. Events of July 21st in Niasvizh were the first uprising in the ghetto during the Second world war.
After the war, the memory of victims of Nazism was immortalized, although on the monuments in the Soviet period, as a rule, the nationality of the victims was not specified. In 1965, the rests of the murdered in the Old Park were re-buried in the town cemetery, where a memorial sign was installed. In 1993 was established a monument close to the street Snouskaja. In the late 2000s on the Pierszamajskaja street was opened a monument in honor of participants of the uprising in the ghetto.