Niasvizh buildings

The first mention about Niasvizh was linkes former with the name of Jury Niasvizhski, who took part in the battle on Kalka river in May 31, 1223, but this version was denied by scholars in late 80-th of XX century. The monumental stone buildings of late XVI – early XX centuries are presented with building of plebaniya, the house of artisan and the former inn.

The house on the market

The house of an artisan (House in the marketplace) is the only extant architectural model of a Belarusian urban dwelling with a baroque façade of the first half of the 18th century. The two-storeyed building, rectangular in plan, with a semi-basement was built in 1721. The main façade fronts the street building line. The initial setting-out of the house is hardly possible to restore today because of drastic alterations. It can only be assumed that it used to be divided into housing and production (commercial) premises. The construction combines wooden (first floor) and brick (ground floor) structures. The frontispiece wall is the most interesting. Its tall figured contour with a profiled cornice submerges agable roof. An asymmetry in distribution of window and door ways is observed but it is smoothed with a symmetric configuration of the upper wall contour and equal spacing of edgevents at the gable corners. The baroque frontispiece imparts a monumental character to the construction.

At present, the building houses a children's library.

The building of the former priest’s house

The plebaniya was built in the 17th century near the Catholic church at sponsorship of Mikołaj Krzysztof "the Orphan" Radziwiłł. The building was used as a Catholic priest’s dwelling house. There were rooms for pilgrims as well as for the church archive and library. In 1800, the buildings of the former Jesuit Collegium located in front of the plebaniya were allotted to the military department. Subject to agreement with the priest, the upper floor apartments were rented to top rank officers in 1800–1820.

In the plebaniya yard – now it is situated in Lieninskaja street – there was a separate, one-storeyed stone construction of a kitchen. In the second half of the 19th century, a new L-shaped structure was added to join the dwelling house to the kitchen. The court with a small orchard was surrounded with a stone wall on one side and with a palisade on the other three.

As a result of subsequent transformations, the plebaniya designed in baroque acquired a character of classicism.

From 1954 to 1972, the print shop named after Symon Budny was located. In 2007, the plebaniya was returned to the parish.

The old inn

The stone building of the former inn was constructed roughly in 1897–1903 on the site of the wooden one, probably, burned down in a town fire. The purpose of the construction was the same – an inn (or wayside inn). The building consisted of two main functionally different parts. The eastern wing was used as a hotel for visitors (and probably, as the owner’s lodging), in the other part, there were carts and stables for horses. Each part existed in an autonomous way having separate entrances from the yard (the entrance from the street was through the large arch spans).

The construction retained its functionality in a later period as well. Following the World War II and until recently, a hotel was located in the building. After the restoration work in 1995–1997, it is used as an office block of the State institution "National History and Culture Museum-Reserve "Niasvizh".

Trade rows

The Niasvizh town hall is surrounded by trade rows. The construction, which includes numerous cells-shops, is a notable part of the market square. The trade rows appeared at the same time as the town hall, no later than 1596, and they were built in the same style as the main building.

Originally the trade rows were located only on the right and on left of the town hall, and shops were opening to the side of the inner yard. Between the rows and the building of the Town Hall were driveways, closing at night by massive gates. In the XVIII century the shopping rows were extended to the town hall, surrounding it on three sides. At this time the cells of stores were redirected to the opposite direction, and their number reached 52. Since that time, the shopping rows became lean, with a slope towards the courtyard. Tax exemptions, guaranteed by the Magdeburg law, contributed to the development of crafts and trade in Niasvizh . Shopping rows in the market square became one of the most important business centers in the town. Many shops were owned by Jewish merchants, numerous in Niasvizh .

In the early twentieth century shopping rows were called as "Sukiennice " by citizens of Niasvizh, mainly because the trade there was concentrated on clothes of both local production and imported.

Currently trading rows are used for their intended purpose: there are shops.

The building of the dairy plant

The building was constructed in the late XIX century and for a long time it housed the barracks.

In the 1920s and 30s, when the Stefan Batory 27th Lancers Regiment was deployed in Niasvizh, this building housed the officers' quarters for the officers and their families. The regiment was created in July 27th, 1920, and took part in the Polish-Soviet War. Since 1921, it was deployed in Niasvizh. In 1936 the regiment was given the name of King Stefan Batory. Soldiers and officers of the regiment, many of whom were still in the Russian Imperial Army, took an active part in the cultural life of Niasvizh and sporting competitions. In particular, on the regimental horses Niasvizh lancers won many Polish national competitions.

In September 1939, the 27th lancers’ regiment was moved to the west and took part in battles against the German army near Tomaszów Lubelski between Lviv and Lublin. As the part of Nowogródzka Cavalry Brigade General of Władysław Anders the 27th regiment was fighting bravely against the German 8th army corps, but then was forced to retreat directing to the south towards the Hungarian border. Retreating with Anders, Lancers attacked both German and Soviet troops. Many died, and on September 27th survivors were captured. Many officers of the regiment subsequently were shot dead near Kharkiv. Currently, the town hall of Niasvizh keeps an exact copy of the original regimental flag on a flagstaff.

Prior to 1939 a dairy cooperative was located nearby. Then dairy factory was organized in Niasvizh , which soon took the room of the barracks and the surrounding area. Today it is a branch of the Kletsk creamery.

Fire station

In the XIX century in Niasvizh fires occurred frequrently , which produced great damage to the town. So, after one of them the Niasvizh Town Hall lost its tower. The town, where wooden buildings dominated, burned a lot and many times, To fight the disaster at the end of the XIX century was created the Niasvizh voluntary society for the protection from fire, which included both Christians and Jews. In 1909–1940 volunteers in shifts defended the town from fire. The society owned the property of 10000 rubles, a depot and four horses. Near the fire station there was a wooden tower, from which the town was continuously observed.

The building of Higher Primary School

September 1st, 1908 in Niasvizh started functioning the men's urban 4-classes school, which received the status of a higher primary school on January 1st, 1913. It was located in the str. Studenckaja in a rented house of Bernadsky. Among the most outstanding school’s graduates is the People's Commissar for Education of BSSR, a member of the Academy of sciences of BSSR Anton Platun. Nowadays, there is a post office situated in the building.

In the early twentieth century a Liebiadzeŭ private school for men, female Jewish pro-gymnasium Rosenfeld, men's and women's gymnasium also functioned in Niasvizh. With the rise of Belarusian self-consciousness starts the creation of the Belarusian school. In 1921, on the basis of on the Russian women gymnasium at the initiative of teacher-enthusiast Jazep Šnarkievič, there were established classes with studies are carried out in the Belarusian language. Šnarkevič was able to collect teachers and prepare an academic programme. However, shortly before the start of the school year, the Polish authorities requisitioned the building. The administration of the school had to rent rooms from town residents Epstein, Vituška, Dylieŭski and Kulakoŭski and organize classes in two or three shifts.

Due to the strict limitations of the Polish authorities the school enrollment was closed for the Belarusian Catholics, and in secondary classes only girls could be taught. All this has significantly reduced the number of potential high school pupils, and in the first academic year only 9 students were enrolled to the first grade. Because of the difficult financial situation of the Belarusians, the tuition fee at school was made considerably smaller than in the Russian and polish high schools.

In 1923, the school’s license for its activity was not renewed. Another year the high school used to work in secret, and then resumed working in Kletsk.